American Axe & Tool Company
The information on this company and all the others that either merged
or later purchased by the
American Axe Company was found in the Directory of American Tool Makers.
The work dates were from 1889-1921 they were located in Oakland Maine and it seems probable
they moved to Pennsylvania ca. 1912. They made axes, edge tools, farm tools and scythes. An
1894 catalog issued by a New York, NY company with this name is believed to have just been a
sales office of the Maine Company. In Pennslyvania, they marked tools
with both their full name
and A.A. &T. CO. and used the brand names INVINCIBLE and AMERICAN
AX, but whether
any of these marks/brands were used in Maine is not clear. In 1889, they persuaded 15 other
companies to join them in an axe making trust. Several Mann’s joined
that trust and they
retained rights to those names until 1921 when Kelly Axe & Tool Co. of West Virginia bought
their assets. The Kelly Axe Company of Louisville Kentucky 1874-1909 also recorded as W.C.
Kelly and Company worked in KY until ca. 1890 when they moved or expanded to Indiana.
They used the brand names: Fulton Clipper, Fulton Special, Kelly Handmade, Kelly Crosscut,
Kelly Perfect Axe, The World Kelly, Kelly Standard and W.C. Kelly Flint
Edge. Around the
time they moved to Indiana the name was changed to Kelly Axe Mfg. Company after 1900 the
use of the Kelly name becomes quite confused. They were apparently purchased
American Fork and Hoe Company whose name was later changed to True Temper
who sold the
rights to Barco Industries in 1987. True Temper worked in Charleston,
West Virginia and Barco
in Reading, Pennsylvania. It seems probable that someone was using the name Kelly Axe & Tool
Company in West Virginia in 1921 when that company
bought the assets of the American Axe
and Tool Company.
All of the pictures on the next few pages of labels and axes, I wanted
to share with you and are
from an old catalog entitled The American Axe and Tool Company I believe
the date is around
This information was on one of the pages, I added work dates and history
from the EAIA
Directory to the companies I could find.
The American Axe & Tool Company manufactures the following brands
of Axes, Hatchets,
1-Lippincott & CO (Pittsburgh PA 1843-1913 an established 1843 date was used by this
company, but this name probably succeeded Lippincott & Bakewell and/or
some other name.
They were purchased by Hubbard & Co. sometime before Hubbard became
part of the
American Axe & Tool Co. in 1889 A.A. &T were still using this
name in 1913).
2- Blood’s (Isaiah Blood Ballston NY 1860-1895 marks they used were I. Blood/Ballston
N.Y./Extra/Cast Steel Blood born Feb. 13 1810 died on Nov. 29 1870 continued a business started
by his father Sylvester; his first name was also reported as Isaiah.
Different sources cite Blood’s
work city as Ballston, Ballston Spa, Milton, and Bloodville. He apparently
worked as Blood &
Co. and/or Blood Co. at some time in the 1860s. The business was continued
in his name by his
son-in-law until ca. 1895 when it became part of American Axe & Tool).
3- Hunt’s (E. Douglas MA 1836-1897 St. Stephen NB uses a various combination of marks W.
Hunt or W. Hunt&co one of the cities, and or cast steel warranted
the reports on this company
are somewhat contradictory and confusing. One says Warren Hunt was a
founder and major
stockholder in the early years another says Hunt was an axe maker who
was bought out by a
Douglas Co. which expanded its name and used Hunt’s name as a brand
name. A Canadian
subsidiary used the same name and from 1866 to 1885 when the facility
there was sold to E. B
Groad & Sons. An address in Boston was apparently their business offices by 1870, but they had
factories in other cities which went by the names: Howe, Newshops, Lovett
works, upper works
and Gilboa. The East Douglas facility was called the main plant besides the Hunt name the
company used brand names E. Moore, L. Stone, D. Sharp and L. Quin all were names of
4- WM. Mann’s (William Mann had several son’s who started
their own company so I will just
list the one that I think goes with this mark Harvey Mann Bellefonte PA 1834-1870 Harvey was
born July 2 1804 and died June 4 1870 he was a son of William Mann Sr. He worked with a
brother William Jr. in Boiling Springs, PA, 1825-1833 as William & Harvey Mann after that
partnership was dissolved he moved to Bellefonte and worked alone. In
later advertising he used
Est. 1825. Harvey had two axe related patents issued June 3, 1862 and
August 17, 1869 one
source refers to him as Sr. but no Jr. is known to have succeeded him.
However a nephew J.
Fearon Mann reportedly operated the Harvey Mann axe factory until the
joining of American
Axe and Tool Company in 1889 it is not known whether J. Fearon used his
own name or
continued to use Harvey’s name.)
5-Jamestown Axe CO. (Jamestown NY 1834-1921 this name was cited in an 1882 primary
source. A secondary source reported a Jamestown Edge Tool Works as being founded in 1834 by
C.L. Jeffords and working until 1921. They are probably the same but
it is not clear if the name
was changed that name was used in 1834.),
6- Hubbard’s (Pittsburgh PA 1846-1884 an 1881 source says they were established in 1846, but
the name was undoubtedly different in the earlier years. A maker name
used ca. 1873 was
Hubbard, Lippincott, Bakewell & Co. the respective first names of
those three were Charles W. ,
James and Thomas. A Hubbard & Co. reportedly purchased a Lippincott
& Co. sometime
before 1889, a Lippincott & Bakewell were listed in an 1870 directory.
This succession of mix
and match partnerships and separations cannot be dated specifically.
A C. W. Hubbard possibly
Charles and G. Palmer of Pittsburgh were issued an August 22, 1871 patent for an axe making
7- Robert Mann (Mill Hall PA 1849-1879 Born June 13, 1824 a son of William Mann Sr., was the
father of four axe making sons two of them succeeded him as Robert Mann
8- T.R. Mann & CO.
9-Underhill E.T. CO. (Nashua NH 1840-1869 Rufus K may not have worked alone as a tool
maker. He worked with his brother George W. Possibly as part of G. W. Underhill and company
ca 1840-53 by 1869 he was reportedly working in MA)
10- Francis Axe CO. (Buffalo NY 1889 a reported Frances Axe Co. New York, NY is thought to
be a doubly erroneous cite of the company which became part of the American
Axe & Tool Co.
in 1889. Their brand names Francis and Choppers Pride were also used
by the A. A. & T. CO).
11-Red Warrior (Lewistown PA 1904 James H. Mann a son of William Mann
Jr. whose initial
was also recorded as N ran the William Mann JR. & Co. axe business
until at least 1876 and
possibly 1890 he may not have worked under his own name until ca. 1902.
He patented an axe in
1868 which was sold under the brand name Red Warrior, another brand name
used until after 1901 was HUNIATA. His sons Frank K., Walter, and Percy U. joined him or took over the James H. Mann Co. in 1904).
12-Red Mann (brand name for another Mann axe)
12- Criterion (I was unable to find any information on this company still
working on it)
13-Peerless (Cleveland OH 1889 called the Powell Tool CO. the company
used the brand names
Peerless and Monarch they joined the American Axe and tool company combine
in 1889 but
their name was still being used in 1913).
14- Climax (Mill Hall PA 1882-1889 Thomas R. Mann was a son of Robert
15-Mountaineer (Still working to find information)
16-Ideal Ridge (brand name of a patented ax for the American Axe and
17-Rough Rider (American Axe and Tool company brand name).
18-King of the Forest (brand name for Hubbard Blake MFG. CO. Waterville Maine1865-1877
John U. Hubbard, William P. Blake, Luther D. Emerson and Charles E. Folsom
Hubbard and Blake and were succeeded by Hubbard and Blake MFG. Co. Emerson
left this company in 1870 to form Emerson and Stevens but this name was
retained until 1877).
19-Forest Clipper (another brand name for Hubbard Blake MFG. CO).
20-Niagara (brand name for the Manhattan Axe Co. ca. 1913)
21- W. Stewart’s (no information found as of yet)
22-Hubbard & Blake MFG. CO. (Waterville
Maine 1865-1877 John U. Hubbard, William P.
Blake, Luther D. Emerson and Charles E. Folsom succeeded Hubbard and
Blake and were
succeeded by Hubbard and Blake MFG. Co. Emerson and Folsom left this
company in 1870 to
form Emerson and Stevens but this name was retained until 1877).
23- Romer Bros. MFG. CO. (Dunkirk New York 1876-1916 Nicholas born September 25, 1836 in
Denmark died January of 1900 and John died ca. September 1900 Romer
were reported with
this name, Romer Bros., Romer Bros. MFG. CO., Romer Axe Co. and Gowanda.
It is not clear
whether these were alternative names or changed in some sequence. They
worked in Gowanda
until 1889 or 1895 it is no clear whether Gowanda was their working name
there or a brand name. They sold that business to the American Axe and Tool company moved to Dunkirk and started a new business
however, they also reportedly left the American Axe and Tool Company
in 1908 so the truth is quite uncertain. Andrew C. Romer son of Nicholas
succeeded the original
brothers in 1900 and sold the business the Warren Axe and tool company
in 1916 brand names
they used were Uncle Sam’s, Faultless and Monarch).
24-Marshall Bros. (still looking for information ca. 1913)
25- A. Ten Eyck (no information found as of yet)
26-Blodgett Tool CO. (New Hampshire 1853-1862 marks used were Blodgett,
edge tool Mfg. Co.
cast steel, warranted, H.C. Reynolds Agent this company name was also
used without the MFG.
the name was changed to Amoskeag Ax Co. in 1862 but this name was also
continued and Henry
C. Reynolds did not become its agent until 1863. A George Reynolds probably
the father of
Henry was the superintendent of the company 1856-60 and he patented a
machine to make axe
polls in 1858 the Amoskeag Ax company Manchester New Hampshire 1862-1879 was absorbed
by Underhill Edge Tool Company in 1879 but Underhill continued to use
the Amoskeag name).
27- John Crippin’s New York (no information found)
28-James & CO. (no information found)
29- Strong & CO. (No information found)
30-Adams Tool CO. (still working on finding information Providence Rhode Island)
31- G.W. Kent (no information found).
32- C. Jay and Blair’s (No information found).
Information obtained from EAIA The Directory of American Toolmakers book
which you can purchase at this link below