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Saw & File and Misc. Facts
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Backsaw-a class of saws with a deep, thin blade stiffened by a heavy metal spine.


Bow Saw-narrow blade which is held under tension in a bow frame.


Compass-blade tapering from 1/8 at the point to 2 or more at heel for cutting curves.


Coping-thin blade frame saw for cutting sharp angles and curves.


Crosscut-Cuts across the grain.


Docking-rugged skew-back for rough fast sawing.


Dovetail-backsaw with thin blade.


Face-the front or cutting edge of a tooth.


Fleam-side angle of a tooth.


Flooring-designed for use where an occasional nail may be encountered.


Gauge-blade thickness


Gullet-space between large saw teeth.


Hacksaw-designed to cut metal with a fine flexible blade.


Heel-end of a blade near the handle also called butt.


Kerf-groove cut by a saw blade.


Keyhole-a smaller form of compass saw cuts curves of small radius.


Medallion-large embossed screwhead on the saw handle.


Miter saw-backsaw especially designed for use in a miter box.


Nest of saws-set of saws, consisting of three interchangeable blades, keyhole, compass and nail or utility blades.




Panel saw-24 long or shorter.


Points-number of teeth points per inch.


Rake-the slant of a saw tooth.


Ripsaw-cuts with the grain.


Set-the amount of lateral inclination of teeth to the plane of the blade.


Skew back-a curved upper edge.


Space-the distance between two adjoining teeth, measured from point to point.    


Straight back-a saw with a straight upper edge.


Taper ground-blade that tapers from a thicker tooth edge to the back. Also from toe to heel. Opposite of flat ground.

Caring for your saw

Wipe a saw blade occasionally with an oily rag to help prevent rust or coat the blade with wax. To remove rust use a rust solvent, (a product called MAAS works well)  rubbing with steel wool and wetting and rerubbing until metal is bright. To remove kinks if you can't straighten it by hand, lay blade on a wood surgace, and tap with a mallet. You can protect the teeth by slitting an old rubber hose to sheath the teath.

Caring for your files

When files and rasps become clogged, clean them with a file card. Clean badly clogged files by soaking them in paint thinner keep file teeth from clogging by coating them with talcum powder or chalk.

Care of Oilstones
New oilstones should be saturated with light oil before use and kept oiled and dust-free. If your stone is worn you can use silicon powder mixed about 80 grit with a little water on a sheet of glass and this is used to grind down a stone that has been worn uneven by use.

Natural Oil Stone's

Washita-Washita stone is found in the Ozark mountains of Arkansas, and is composed of nearly pure silica, very similar to the Arkansas, but much more porous. It is known throughout the world as the best natural stone for sharpening carpenters and general woodworkers tools. It's sharpening qualities are due to small, Sharp pointed grains or crystals, hexagonal in shape and much harder than steel. It is found in various grades, from perfectly crystallized in porous grit to flint and hard sandstone. The sharpness of grit depends entirely upon its crystallization. The best oil stones are made from very porous crystals. Lily White Washita is the best selection for grading of natural Washita, perfectly white in color, uniforming texture and nicely finished. Rosy red Washita Has an even porous grit somewhat coarser than the Lily white grading and therefore faster cutting.

No. 1 Washita is a good oil stone for general use, where a medium price stone is wanted. It is far superior to the many chief so-called oilstones on the market that are only sandstone with a polished face, that it is not as uniform as the Lily white.

Arkansas oil stone-Arkansas stone is composed of pure silica crystals, microscopic in size, and silica is among the hardest of known minerals. So hard and perfectly crystallized is the Arkansas stone that it is nearly 16 times harder to cut and marble, as the hardest of steel tools with the finest points for blades may be sharpened on the Arkansas stone without grooving. Arkansas stone is prepared for commercial purposes in two grades, hard and soft.

Hard Arkansas as much harder than steel and will therefore cut away and sharpened steel tools. The extreme finest of texture makes the slow cutter, the perfect sharpener.

Soft Arkansas is not quite so fine grain and hard as the hard Arkansas, but it cuts faster and is better for carvers, file makers, patternmakers and all of all workers and hardwood.

Artificial oilstones-these are made of carborundum, Emery, corundum and other artificial abrasives, and are largely used in place of natural stones because they cut faster and may be made of any degree of fineness and of even texture.

Carborundum oilstones are made from carborundum and may be used dry, or with water or oil, are quite porous, and may be tempered clean and bright, never fill or glaze, and are made in three grades as follows: fine (ff) work for occurring a series to keen edge on tools of hard steel. Medium (180) for sharpening tools quickly where an extremely keen edge is not necessary. Coarse (120) to sharpen very dull and large tools, which made later be finished with a fine stone, where in casesa fine finish is not required.

India oilstones-made from Alundum. They possess the characteristics of hardness, sharpness and toughness, as well as uniformity. They cut rapidly and are especially adaptable to the quick sharpening of all kinds of machinist tools, made of modern tools steels, such as scrapers, taps, reamers, milling cutters, lathe and planer tools. All Indians stones or oil field by a patented process. This feature ensures a moist orderly sharpening surface with the use of only a small quality of oil. It also ensures a good cutting surface by preventing the stone filling with particles of steel.

Indian stones are made in three grades were grades as follows: coarse-for sharpening large and very dull or nicked tools, machine knives, and for general use were fast cutting its required without regard to fine finish.

Medium-for ordinary sharpening of mechanics tools not requiring finishing edge. Especially recommended for tools used in working softwoods, clock, leather, and rubber.

Fine-for machinist and engravers, die workers, instrument workers, cabinetmakers and all users of tools requiring a very fine, Keen edge.


It takes a year to make a Stanley Rule!


After the tree is felled, twelve months are required before the wood is right for a Stanley Rule and seventy distinct operations are performed to you a high quality Stanley Zig Zag.

The native hardwood is air seasoned and kiln dried under the most favorable conditions. The sticks are sawed so the grain runs lengthwise. Sticks with wavy grain are discarded. To prevent the entrance of moisture, all surfaces of the wood are sealed with a special Stanley preparation. These operations are your assurance of strong sticks. The graduations and figures are accurately printed in jet black, and a fine durable finish of Stanley lacquer enamel adds to the permanency and accuracy of Stanley Zig Zags.

The most durable long wearing metal is used in the joints. Specially designed locking pockets prevent stretching and jack-knifing.

Frequent inspections and tests as the parts are made and assembled and final inspections against U.S. Standards of measurements are your assurance that Stanley Zig Zags are made accurate to stay accurate.

Stanley Everlasting Chisels


Carpenters, Electricians, and Home craftsmen need Everlasting chisels to mortise hard wood or large timbers, for repair work, and for all wood that calls for a general purpose chisel. Schools use them in manual training classes and term them boy Proof chisels.


A blow struck on the head of an Everlasting chisel is transmitted directly to the cutting edge with undiminished force. The handles are never separated from the blades and can never become battered or uncomfortable. Only the finest tool steel is used, correctly heat treated and tempered to hold a keen cutting edge. The blades are carefully polished.


Everlasting chisels with rubber composition handles the head, shank, ferrule, and blade are forged complete no mechanical joints.  The handle is made of a special rubber composition that possesses unusual resistance to breakage and is not affected by heat or moisture. The handle is formed about the shank under tremendous pressure, filling in the recesses in the shank so that it is in possible for it to budge.


Everlasting chisels with wood handles the head, shank and blade are forged from one piece of tool steel. The Ferrules assembled by swaging it into the double taper in the shank of the chisel. The handle is made of selected hickory. It is well finished and is anchored permanently to the bar. A leather washer between the handle and steel head serves as a cushion when the blow is struck.

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