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Plane Facts
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10 Commandments for planes

  1. Do not use on painted or varnished wood.
  2. Keep the blade razor sharp.
  3. In making a rough cut, slant the plane across the board.
  4. In finishing, start with pressure on the plane front, end with pressure on the rear.
  5.  In planning end grain, to avoid breaking corners, go from each end to the middle.
  6. Store planes so they are protected from rust and damage to the cutting edge. Lay it on side when not in use.
  7. Dont try to make too thick a cut.
  8. Keep the blade straight for an even cut.
  9. The longer the plane, the smoother the results.
  10. Cut with the grain.

Badger planes are more like Jack planes with skew angle cutting irons. They are used for cross grain and panel work and often have a sole-mounted fence.
Basket shaves are vise-held tools with hinged soles which adjusted the thickness of their thin willow shavings, or a much larger and heavier plane with 4 or more dowel shaped pull handles.  The  later type often had a recessed sole up to 2 1/2" wide.
Block planes are usually 7" in length. Used for cross-grain work and other one-handed trimming chores, the low angle blade makes a shearing cut not apt to follow the grain.
Chamfer planes are usually short beechwood planes with V-soles. Thier pupose was to cut a 45 degree bevel on a right angle edge.
Chariot planes are so called because of their distinctive profile. The term is used in referring to any of several small chariot shaped planes, usually block or bullnose types of Bristish manufacture.
Cooper's Croze planes cut a crooze groove in the center of the previously cut, wide, shallow, howell depression.  
Cooper's Howell forms the wide, shallow, gouge-shaped, cut inside the barrel end in preparation for the croze groove which receives the tapered edge of the head.
Compass plane are any number of adjustable and non-adjustable curved-bottom wood or metal planes made for working curved surfaces such as coach door panels.
Coping planes are essentially reverse window sash moulders. Each sash plane needs a coping plane to match its blade pattern.
Fillester planes are highly refined versions of the rabbet plane equipped with a spur for cross grain cutting and also a depth adjustment feature.
Fore planes is simply a short jointer, and being lighter, is preferred by some workmen to the longer planes. They are used to smooth joints for gluing or clean up of rougher work done by the shortend jack plane. Wooden fore planes range from 18" to 22" sometimes 24". Metal planes are almost always 18".
Gutter planes have a round bottom and blade for hollowing out gutters and other wooden pipe-like troughts of 1 1/2" to 2" in diameter.
Pump planes are a form of the gutter plane made specifically for cutting 1"  to 1 1/2" chain pump grooves.
Furring plane were designed to quickly remove fur and grit from rough sawn mill lumber to prepare it for fine finishing by smoothing planes. Usually 10" in length with a 2" cutter.
Halving planes cut a fixed width stairstep rabbet for shiplap board joints. The cutters were up to 3/4" wide and range in length from 8 1/2" to 10".
Handrail planes come in a variety of  2" wide rail of banister moulding shapes including the common half-round.
Horn planes are patterned after their German counterparts and come in several horned styles including Smooth, Scrub, Jack and Toothing planes.
Jack planes are made to true up edges of a board in the rough and prepare it for the Fore or jointer. The 1 3/4"  to 2" cutter was slightly convex for rapid removal of excess stock. Wooden Jack planes range in length from 14" to 18". The newer metal planes are usually 14" long.
Jointer planes are the longest members of the plane family. They are used in finishing for large surfaces and is invariably used to true up the edges of boards so that they can be closely fitted or joined together. They range in length from 22" to 28" in length.
Match planes were commonly produced in matched pairs for the purpose of cutting a tongue on the edge of one board and a matching groove on antother.
Mitre planes were designed for end-grain work on picture frame and other decorative mouldings. They were usually no more than 10 1/2" long.
Moulding planes were used to cut ornamental profiles in wooden trim. Simple moulding planes were used to make simple shapes, portions of circles or rectangles that can be scribed with a compass and staight edge. Complex moulding planes are usually wider, with irregular curved cutters, and sometimes had handles.  These planes range in size from  4"  to 9 1/2".
Nosing planes were used to cut the half-round fronts of stair treads.
Patternmakers planes had a variety of interchangeable curved and convex soles, to produce wooden patterns for sand cores and forms used in metal foundry casting.
Plow planes were a sophisticated grooving tool which made quick work of preparing drawer sides to receive bottoms and cutting panel grooves in door and chest frames.
Rabbet plane (lets define what a rabbet is first) a rabbet is a rectangular section recess along the edge of a piece of wood. It is often used to receive a square-edged panel at right angles to the rabbeted wood. A Bench rabbet can cut large rabbets with a blade extending across the entire width of the sole. A Bullnose plane is a short snub-nose viersion of the shoulder plane, this small lightweight plane is used to trim stopped rabbets or small joints. The Shoulder plane has an accurately machined body with both sides perfectly square to the sole. It can be used like a bench rabbet but is most useful as a means of trimming the square shoulders of large joints. The blade is set at a low angle so it will shave the end grain. The Side-rabbet-plane is a minature plane used for shaving rabbets or easing the sides of narrow grooves.
Raising panel plane was used to taper the edges of a panel to fit the panel groove. The plane has a flat bottom and often has a skewed iron. The irons were 2 1/2" to 4" wide.
Rounder plane are for turning or tapering huge dowels.
Rounding plane has a concave bottom used to smooth the outside of a barrel or pulley.
Sash plane were used to cut the ornamental inside window moulding bar while at the same time rebating a lap for the outside window pane to be puttied against.
Scraper plane is a flat bottomed scraper shaped like a plane. This is used for final smoothing before sanding. It is also used to smooth surfaces that are difficult to plane because of curly or irregular grain.
Scrub plane were used to quickly and efficiently dimension rough timber. The convex, gouge-like cutter literally sliced wood off and actually worked best when used across, rather than with the grain.
Shoot Board plane runs in a fixed groove or against a side stop relative to the workpiece.
Smoothing plane  is used for fininshing or smoothing off flat surfaces. Where uneven spots are of slight area, its shor length will permit it to locate these irregularities, leaving the work with a smooth surface when finished. The length was usually 6" to 10 1/2" long.
Thumb planes are miniature versions of larger rabbet, moulding, smoothing and carriage maker's planes. They were used for fine detailing. Under 5" in length.